Global warming

(Kevin: Good job! Is there any information on the effectiveness of these efforts?)

8.6.12 Discuss international efforts to reduce the enhanced greenhouse effect.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
-Established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)
-Hundreds of governmental scientific representatives from more than a hundred nations are involved
-Representatives regularly analyze the latest evidence from international research on global warming and human induced climate change

Physics for the IB Diploma by Tim Kirk

Kyoto Protocol
-Amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
-Nations that sign this treaty agree to work towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions by a specific amount
-Over 160 nations have ratified this protocol, but some industrialized nations such as the United States and Australia have yet to do so
-Although India and China have ratified the protocol, they are not required to reduce their carbon emissions yet

Physics for the IB Diploma by Tim Kirk

Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APPCDC)
-Originally six nations (Australia, China, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, and United States)
-These nations are responsible for using around 50% of the world's energy usage
-Their goal: "to work together and with private sector partners to meet goals for energy security, national air pollution reduction, and climate change in ways that promote sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction"
-Canada signed the protocol in 1998 but formal ratification occurred on 2002 making it the seventh member

Physics for the IB Diploma by Tim Kirk

Copenhagen Summit 2009
-The Kyoto Protocol ends in 2012
-The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) wished to renew the Kyoto Protocol
-The Copenhagen Summit was a conference held in 2009 for governmental representatives from over 170 nations to meet one last time before the Kyoto Protocol was renewed
-A new protocol was not made during the conference, instead, only an agreement named the Copenhagen Accord was decided upon

The key points in the Copenhagen Accord were:

"-To keep the maximum temperature rise to below 2°C
-To list developed country emission reduction targets and mitigation action by developing countries for 2020
-$30 billion short-term funding for immediate action till 2012
-$100 billion annually by 2020 in long-term financing
-Reiterating past intentions such as providing mechanisms to support technology transfer and forestry."